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    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels initiate action potentials in most neurons, including primary afferent nerve fibres of the pain pathway. Local anaesthetics block pain through non-specific actions at all Nav channels, but the discovery of selective modulators would facilitate the analysis of individual subtypes of these channels and their contributions to chemical, mechanical, or thermal pain. Here we identify and characterize spider (Heteroscodra maculata) toxins that selectively activate the Nav1.1 subtype, the role of which in nociception and pain has not been elucidated. We use these probes to show that Nav1.1-expressing fibres are modality-specific nociceptors: their activation elicits robust pain behaviours without neurogenic inflammation and produces profound hypersensitivity to mechanical, but not thermal, stimuli. In the gut, high-threshold mechanosensitive fibres also express Nav1.1 and show enhanced toxin sensitivity in a mouse model of irritable bowel syndrome. Together, these findings establish an unexpected role for Nav1.1 channels in regulating the excitability of sensory nerve fibres that mediate mechanical pain.

    Citation

    Jeremiah D Osteen, Volker Herzig, John Gilchrist, Joshua J Emrick, Chuchu Zhang, Xidao Wang, Joel Castro, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Andy D Weyer, Zoltan Dekan, Eivind A B Undheim, Paul Alewood, Cheryl L Stucky, Stuart M Brierley, Allan I Basbaum, Frank Bosmans, Glenn F King, David Julius. Selective spider toxins reveal a role for the Nav1.1 channel in mechanical pain. Nature. 2016 Jun 23;534(7608):494-9

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    PMID: 27281198

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