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Using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) we examined the role of calcium transients induced by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in triggering oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. CGC were exposed for 30 min to 10 or 25 µM TBBPA. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in the potential of mitochondria (∆Ψm) were measured fluorometrically during the exposure. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity were determined after the incubation; cell viability was evaluated 24 h later. TBBPA concentration-dependently increased [Ca2+]i and ROS production, and reduced GSH content, catalase activity, ∆Ψm and neuronal viability. The combination of NMDA and ryanodine receptor antagonists, MK-801 and bastadin 12 with ryanodine, respectively, prevented Ca2+ transients and partially reduced cytotoxicity induced by TBBPA at both concentrations. The antagonists also completely inhibited oxidative stress and depolarization of mitochondria evoked by 10 µM TBBPA, whereas these effects were only partially reduced in the 25 µM TBBPA treatment. Free radical scavengers prevented TBBPA-induced development of oxidative stress and improved CGC viability without having any effect on the rises in Ca2+ and drop in ∆Ψm. The co-administration of scavengers with NMDA and ryanodine receptor antagonists provided almost complete neuroprotection. These results indicate that Ca2+ imbalance and oxidative stress both mediate acute toxicity of TBBPA in CGC. At 10 µM TBBPA Ca2+ imbalance is a primary event, inducing oxidative stress, depolarization of mitochondria and cytotoxicity, whilst at a concentration of 25 µM TBBPA an additional Ca2+-independent portion of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity emerges.


Elzbieta Zieminska, Jacek Lenart, Dominik Diamandakis, Jerzy W Lazarewicz. The Role of Ca2+ Imbalance in the Induction of Acute Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity in Cultured Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells Challenged with Tetrabromobisphenol A. Neurochemical research. 2017 Mar;42(3):777-787

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PMID: 27718046

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