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    Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated1 (LGI1) encephalitis is an antibody-associated inflammation of the limbic area. An autoimmune etiology is suspected but not yet proven. We performed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis in 25 nontumor anti-LGI1 patients and discovered a remarkably strong HLA association. HLA-DR7 was present in 88% compared to 19.6% in healthy controls (p = 4.1 × 10-11 ). HLA-DRB4 was present in all patients and in 46.5% controls (p = 1.19 × 10-7 ). These findings support the autoimmune hypothesis. An exploratory analysis was performed in a small group of 4 tumor-LGI1 patients. The strong HLA association seems not applicable in these patients. Therefore, the absence of HLA-DR7 or HLA-DRB4 could raise tumor suspicion in anti-LGI1 patients. Ann Neurol 2017;81:193-198. © 2016 American Neurological Association.


    Agnes van Sonderen, Dave L Roelen, Johannes A Stoop, Robert M Verdijk, Geert W Haasnoot, Roland D Thijs, Paul W Wirtz, Marco W J Schreurs, Frans H J Claas, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Maarten J Titulaer. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is strongly associated with HLA-DR7 and HLA-DRB4. Annals of neurology. 2017 Feb;81(2):193-198

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    PMID: 28026046

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