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    The innate immune system plays a critical role in pathogen recognition and initiation of protective immune response through the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acids including RNA and DNA have been recognized as very important PAMPs of pathogens especially for viruses. RNA are the major PAMPs of RNA viruses, to which most severe disease causing viruses belong thus posing a tougher challenge to human and animal health. Therefore, the understanding of the immune biology of RNA PRRs is critical for control of pathogen infections especially for RNA virus infections. RNA PRRs are comprised of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, RIG-I, MDA5, NLRP3, NOD2, and some other minorities. This review introduces these RNA PRRs by describing the cellular localizations, ligand recognitions, activation mechanisms, cell signaling pathways, and recognition of pathogens; the cross-talks between various RNA PRRs are also reviewed. The deep insights of these RNA PRRs can be utilized to improve anti-viral immune response. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(5):297-304, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.


    Nanhua Chen, Pengpeng Xia, Shuangjie Li, Tangjie Zhang, Tony T Wang, Jianzhong Zhu. RNA sensors of the innate immune system and their detection of pathogens. IUBMB life. 2017 May;69(5):297-304

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    PMID: 28374903

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