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Jadomycins are natural products that kill drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) breast cancer cells. To date, the cytotoxic activity of jadomycins has never been tested in MDR breast cancer cells that are also triple negative. Additionally, there is only a rudimentary understanding of how jadomycins cause cancer cell death, which includes the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We first created a paclitaxel-resistant, triple-negative breast cancer cell line [paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (231-TXL)] from drug-sensitive control MDA-MB-231 cells (231-CON). Using thiazolyl blue methyltetrazolium bromide cell viability-measuring assays, jadomycins B, S, and F were found to be equipotent in drug-sensitive 231-CON and MDR 231-TXL cells; and using ROS-detecting assays, these jadomycins were determined to increase ROS activity in both cell lines by up to 7.3-fold. Jadomycins caused DNA double-strand breaks in 231-CON and 231-TXL cells as measured by γH2AX Western blotting. Coincubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine or pro-oxidant auranofin did not affect jadomycin-mediated DNA damage. Jadomycins induced apoptosis in 231-CON and 231-TXL cells as measured by annexin V affinity assays, a process that was retained when ROS were inhibited. This indicated that jadomycins are capable of inducing MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death independently of ROS activity. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and direct topoisomerase inhibition assays, it was determined that jadomycins inhibit type II topoisomerases and that jadomycins B and F selectively poison topoisomerase IIβ We therefore propose novel mechanisms through which jadomycins induce breast cancer cell death independently of ROS activity, through inhibition or poisoning of type II topoisomerases and the induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Steven R Hall, Jay Toulany, Leah G Bennett, Camilo F Martinez-Farina, Andrew W Robertson, David L Jakeman, Kerry B Goralski. Jadomycins Inhibit Type II Topoisomerases and Promote DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Multidrug-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2017 Nov;363(2):196-210

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PMID: 28904004

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