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    In skeletal muscle, the Rab GTPase-activating (GAP) protein TBC1D1 is phosphorylated by AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to insulin and muscle contraction. Genetic ablation of Tbc1d1 or mutation of distinct phosphorylation sites impairs intracellular GLUT4 retention and GLUT4 traffic, presumably through alterations of the activation state of downstream Rab GTPases. Previous studies have focused on characterizing the C-terminal GAP domain of TBC1D1 that lacks the known phosphorylation sites, as well as putative regulatory domains. As a result, it has been unclear how phosphorylation of TBC1D1 would regulate its activity. In the present study, we have expressed, purified, and characterized recombinant full-length TBC1D1 in Sf9 insect cells via the baculovirus system. Full-length TBC1D1 showed RabGAP activity toward GLUT4-associated Rab8a, Rab10, and Rab14, indicating similar substrate specificity as the truncated GAP domain. However, the catalytic activity of the full-length TBC1D1 was markedly higher than that of the GAP domain. Although in vitro phosphorylation of TBC1D1 by AKT or AMPK increased 14-3-3 binding, it did not alter the intrinsic RabGAP activity. However, we found that TBC1D1 interacts through its N-terminal PTB domains with the cytoplasmic domain of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, a resident protein of GLUT4 storage vesicles, and this binding is disrupted by phosphorylation of TBC1D1 by AKT or AMPK. In summary, our findings suggest that other regions outside the GAP domain may contribute to the catalytic activity of TBC1D1. Moreover, our data indicate that recruitment of TBC1D1 to GLUT4-containing vesicles and not its GAP activity is regulated by insulin and contraction-mediated phosphorylation. © 2018 Mafakheri et al.

    Citation

    Samaneh Mafakheri, Ralf R Flörke, Sibylle Kanngießer, Sonja Hartwig, Lena Espelage, Christian De Wendt, Tina Schönberger, Nele Hamker, Stefan Lehr, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani. AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase regulate TBC1D1 through phosphorylation and its interaction with the cytosolic tail of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase IRAP. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2018 Nov 16;293(46):17853-17862

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    PMID: 30275018

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