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The subcellular mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce apoptosis in gastric cancer and normal mucosal cells is elusive because of the diverse cyclooxygenase-independent effects of these drugs. Using human gastric carcinoma cells (AGSs) and a rat gastric injury model, here we report that the NSAID indomethacin activates the protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)-p38 MAPK (p38)-dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) pathway and thereby disrupts the physiological balance of mitochondrial dynamics by promoting mitochondrial hyper-fission and dysfunction leading to apoptosis. Notably, DRP1 knockdown or SB203580-induced p38 inhibition reduced indomethacin-induced damage to AGSs. Indomethacin impaired mitochondrial dynamics by promoting fissogenic activation and mitochondrial recruitment of DRP1 and down-regulating fusogenic optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusins in rat gastric mucosa. Consistent with OPA1 maintaining cristae architecture, its down-regulation resulted in EM-detectable cristae deformity. Deregulated mitochondrial dynamics resulting in defective mitochondria were evident from enhanced Parkin expression and mitochondrial proteome ubiquitination. Indomethacin ultimately induced mitochondrial metabolic and bioenergetic crises in the rat stomach, indicated by compromised fatty acid oxidation, reduced complex I- associated electron transport chain activity, and ATP depletion. Interestingly, Mdivi-1, a fission-preventing mito-protective drug, reversed indomethacin-induced DRP1 phosphorylation on Ser-616, mitochondrial proteome ubiquitination, and mitochondrial metabolic crisis. Mdivi-1 also prevented indomethacin-induced mitochondrial macromolecular damage, caspase activation, mucosal inflammation, and gastric mucosal injury. Our results identify mitochondrial hyper-fission as a critical and common subcellular event triggered by indomethacin that promotes apoptosis in both gastric cancer and normal mucosal cells, thereby contributing to mucosal injury. © 2019 Mazumder et al.


Somnath Mazumder, Rudranil De, Subhashis Debsharma, Samik Bindu, Pallab Maity, Souvik Sarkar, Shubhra Jyoti Saha, Asim Azhar Siddiqui, Chinmoy Banerjee, Shiladitya Nag, Debanjan Saha, Saikat Pramanik, Kalyan Mitra, Uday Bandyopadhyay. Indomethacin impairs mitochondrial dynamics by activating the PKCζ-p38-DRP1 pathway and inducing apoptosis in gastric cancer and normal mucosal cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2019 May 17;294(20):8238-8258

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PMID: 30940726

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