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Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a fatal autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disease whose rapid and accurate diagnosis is paramount for appropriate treatment. Mutations in STXBP2 gene have been associated with FHL type 5 (FHL-5). Here, we report the first Tibetan Chinese patient diagnosed with FHL-5 caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation in STXBP2. A 9-year-old girl who presented with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and conspicuous bone marrow hemophagocytosis was diagnosed with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). FHL mutation analysis of the patient and her parents revealed that she presented compound heterozygosity for STXBP2: a novel missense mutation c.663G > C (p.Glu221Asp) and the known pathogenic splice-site mutation c.1247-1G > C (p.Val417LeufsX126). Bioinformatics analyses predicted that the new mutation was pathogenic and the FHL-5 diagnosis was confirmed. Upon diagnosis, HLH-2004-directed chemotherapy was instituted, but there was a relapse. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. After transplantation, the patient presented implantation dysfunction, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and 5 episodes of pancreatitis. A follow-up after 5 years revealed that the patient had died of pancreatitis. This finding expands the spectrum of FHL-5-related mutations in Chinese patients and indicates a clear genotype-phenotype correlation of FHL-5 in China.

Citation

Xue Tang, Xia Guo, Qiang Li, Zhuo Huang. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 in a Chinese Tibetan patient caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation in STXBP2. Medicine. 2019 Oct;98(43):e17674

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PMID: 31651895

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