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    GS5 encoding a serine carboxypeptidase-like protein positively regulates grain size and weight through the regulation of grain width and filling and is helpful in improving cereal yields. Grain width variation determined by GS5 is associated with cell number and size, but the actual underlying mechanism is still unclear. Two orthologs of GS5, TtGS5-3A-G and TtGS5-3G-G, were cloned from the Triticum timopheevi accession no. CWI17006. To identify the proteins that interacted with TtGS5-3A-G and TtGS5-3G-G in premature grains, we performed pull-down assays followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. The analyses revealed 18 proteins were present in both the TtGS5-3A-G and TtGS5-3G-G interactomes. Among five candidates selected, only Annexin D1 interacted with both TtGS5-3A-G and TtGS5-3G-G in yeast. Annexin D1, TtGS5-3A-G, and TtGS5-3G-G were located on the cytoplasmic membranes of Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and interactions between Annexin D1 and TtGS5-3A-G, as well as TtGS5-3G-G, were shown by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Annexin D1 was expressed widely in different tissues, and it co-expressed with TtGS5-3A-G/TtGS5-3G-G at the grain enlargement phase. These results indicated that Annexin D1 interacted with TtGS5-3A-G and TtGS5-3G-G in premature grains. Together with the structural similarities of Annexin D1 to known fiber elongation factors, we proposed that TtGS5 might regulate the cell size by interacting with Annexin D1. The results provide significant new information for understanding the roles that GS5 plays in regulating grain size, which may be useful in improving crop yields.


    Peihong Jiang, JianSheng Gao, Junyi Mu, Luning Duan, Yunsong Gu, Shichen Han, Lin Chen, Yaxuan Li, Yueming Yan, Xiaohui Li. Interaction between serine carboxypeptidase-like protein TtGS5 and Annexin D1 in developing seeds of Triticum timopheevi. Journal of applied genetics. 2020 May;61(2):151-162

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    PMID: 31970663

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