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The anti-inflammatory effects of sodium valproate (VPA) in vivo and in vitro have been demonstrated in recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VPA can suppress inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) stimulated by γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP). First, the concentration and treatment points of iE-DAP and VPA were optimized. Then, BMECs were cultured in complete media and separated into four groups: untreated control cells (CON group), cells stimulated by 10 μg/mL iE-DAP for 6 h (DAP group), cells stimulated by 0.5 mmol/L VPA for 6 h (VPA group), and cells pretreated with VPA (0.5 mmol/L) for 6 h followed by 10 μg/mL of iE-DAP for 6 h (VD group). The results showed that the level of  interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the culture medium increased in the iE-DAP-treated cells and that pretreatment with VPA reversed this increase. iE-DAP increased both mRNA and protein expression levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and receptor-interacting protein kinas (RIPK2) and activated inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) through phosphorylation. Upon activation of the NF-κB pathway, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the acute phase protein serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) and the lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP) but not  haptoglobi (HP) or bovine neutrophil beta defensing 5 (BNBD5) were increased in the DAP group. The VPA pretreatment induced the acetylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription(STAT1) and histone 3 (H3) by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) and then suppressed the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, VPA induced autophagy and reduced apoptosis in BMECs in the VD group. These results suggested that VPA treatment can attenuate the inflammatory response induced by iE-DAP. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Citation

Qianyun Gao, Yan Wang, Nana Ma, Hongyu Dai, Animesh Chandra Roy, Guangjun Chang, Xiaoli Shi, Xiangzhen Shen. Sodium valproate attenuates the iE-DAP induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the NOD1-NF-κB pathway and histone modifications in bovine mammary epithelial cells. International immunopharmacology. 2020 Jun;83:106392

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PMID: 32182568

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