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    Bread is a staple food for majority of the people worldwide, but it has a high glycemic effect. Substituting wheat flour partly with chickpea flour and the presence of bran is suggested to improve the glycemic effect of bread; however, the non-gluten substances in wheat flour adversely affect dough rheology. The addition of amla powder was tested on the rheological properties of wheat-chickpea flour composite doughs; also, the physical and sensory qualities of bread made thereof. The results showed that when the level of replacement of refined white flour (WF) or whole wheat flour (WWF) with chickpea flour was increased from 0 to 40%, it significantly affected the rheological properties and functionality of dough. A decreased farinograph water absorption, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, and lower ratio numbers were obtained with some differences between WF and WWF at the higher level of chickpea flour substitution. The addition of amla powder to WF: chickpea flour (60:40) blends reduced the angle of ascending (from 7.0 ± 0.7 to 6.0 ± 0.7) and angel of descending (from 3.2 ± 0.21 to 2.4 ± 0.2), indicating the slight tightening of gluten leading to dough breakdown. The addition of amla powder improved the mixing characteristics of the composite flour doughs, as well as the physical and sensory qualities of the bread. In conclusion, amla powder can help overcome the deleterious impact of adding chickpea flour to WF or WWF for producing good quality pan bread for people with type-2 diabetes.


    Tasleem A Zafar, Ahmad R Allafi, Dina Alkandari, Amani Al-Othman. Rheological characteristics of wheat-chickpea composite flour doughs and effect of Amla powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.) addition on the functional properties of bread. Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnologia de los alimentos internacional. 2021 Apr;27(3):264-275

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    PMID: 32847395

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