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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rat hearts. Exposure was through rat food that was nebulized with the herbicide. Thirty adult male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were used. The diet was exposed to 2,4-D in two different doses (CG: control group 10 ml distilled water; LCG: low concentration group 3.71 × 10-3 g.ia/ha diluted in 10 ml saline at 0.9% and HCG: High concentration group 9.28 × 10-3 g.ia/ha diluted in 10 ml 0.9% saline). After 6 months of exposure, blood samples were collected for CKMB evaluation, and left ventricular fragments were analyzed by histological evaluation, fibrosis measurements, fractal dimension and immunohistochemistry (BAX, Bcl2, TNF-α and NF-kB). There were no significant changes in CK-MB concentration, histological parameters, fibrosis measurements and fractal dimension. Long-term oral consumption of food nebulized by the herbicide 2,4-D promoted an increase in BAX, Bcl-2/BAX, and cytoplasmic NF-kB in the nuclear area of the group that received the highest dose of the herbicide. This suggests that the herbicide induces cardiotoxicity.


    Raíssa De Oliveira Mantovani, Dyovana Gomes Pinheiro, Geovana Letícia Fernandes De Oliveira, Stéfani Nobrega Perrud, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Allice Santos Cruz Veras, Maria Eduarda de Almeida Tavares, Leonardo de Oliveira Mendes, Francis Lopes Pacagnelli. Effect of different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on cardiac parameters in male Wistar rats. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 Jan;28(3):3078-3087

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    PMID: 32901410

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