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    Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate immune defense against infection and tissue injury. Macrophages are highly plastic cells and their subtypes have been characterized as M1 (also termed classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Although the M1/M2 paradigm has been well documented, less is known regarding the role of macrophage activation/polarization in inflammation-associated necrotic cell death. To address this gap in current knowledge, we prepared bone marrow-derived macrophages, induced them to M1 or M2 subtypes, and then investigated the expression of necroptosis signaling molecules and macrophage subtype-dependent responses to different necroptosis inducers. We found that necroptosis effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and the key necroptosis regulator Z-DNA/RNA binding protein 1 were predominantly induced in M1 but not M2 macrophages. Interestingly, the protein but not mRNA levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) were also upregulated in M1 macrophages. We further found that macrophage necrotic cell death, the releases of lactate dehydrogenase and dead cell proteases as well as MLKL phosphorylation at Ser345 in response to various necroptosis inducers were greatly augmented in M1 but not M2 macrophages, and the accelerated effects were blocked by two structurally distinct specific RIPK3 inhibitors GSK872 or GSK843. Thus, our findings demonstrate that M1 but not M2 subtypes of macrophages are more susceptible to inflammation-related lytic cell death in an RIPK3 kinase activity-dependent manner. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Qin Hao, Suman Kundu, Joshua Kleam, Zhizhuang Joe Zhao, Steven Idell, Hua Tang. Enhanced RIPK3 kinase activity-dependent lytic cell death in M1 but not M2 macrophages. Molecular immunology. 2021 Jan;129:86-93

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    PMID: 33221042

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