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    The altered cell cycle is associated with aberrant growth factor signaling in somatotroph adenoma, which is the primary cause of acromegaly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathological role of the INK4 family and evaluate the effectiveness of CDK4 inhibitor, palbociclib, in somatotroph adenoma. RNA‑Seq, RT‑PCR, and immunohistochemistry were applied to measure the levels and correlations of the INK4 family with angiogenesis, CDKs, EMT, and therapeutic targets. MTS, flow cytometry, and ELISA were used to investigate the bio‑activity in GH3 and GT1‑1 cell lines after palbociclib treatment. Compared with lactotroph adenoma, gonadotroph adenoma, and corticotroph adenoma, somatotroph samples demonstrated higher expression of CDKN2A and SSTR2 but a lower expression of EGFR, CDK4, and CDH2 (P<0.05). CDKN2A positively correlates with SSTR2, and negatively with CDK4, EGFR, and CDH2. Patients with lower CDKN2A had larger tumor size (P=0.016) and more invasive potential (P=0.023). Palbociclib inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, reduced GH/IGF‑1 secretion of GH3 and GT1‑1 cell lines (P<0.05), and had a more prominent role in GH3 cells (P<0.05). CDKN2A inhibited the bio‑activity by modulating CDK4, and high CDKN2A predicted the insensitivity to CDK4 inhibitor, palbociclib, in somatotroph adenoma patients. In summary, the present study shows CDKN2A inhibited the bio‑activity by modulating CDK4, and high CDKN2A predicts the insensitivity to CDK4 inhibitor, Palbociclib, in somatotroph adenoma patients.


    Yiyuan Chen, Zhenye Li, Qiuyue Fang, Hongyun Wang, Chuzhong Li, Hua Gao, Yazhuo Zhang. CDKN2A (p16INK4A) affects the anti‑tumor effect of CDK inhibitor in somatotroph adenomas. International journal of molecular medicine. 2021 Feb;47(2):500-510

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    PMID: 33416096

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