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Approximately 30% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) acquire within fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) internal tandem duplications (FLT3/ITDs) in their juxtamembrane domain (JMD). FLT3/ITDs range in size from three to hundreds of nucleotides, and confer an adverse prognosis. Studies on a possible relationship between of FLT3/ITDs length and clinical outcomes in those AML patients were inconclusive, yet. Here we report a 54-year-old Arab male diagnosed with AML who had two FLT3-ITD mutations in addition to NPM1 mutation. Cytogenetic approaches (banding cytogenetics) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes to detect translocations t(8;21), t(15;17), t(16;16), t(12;21), and deletion del(13q)) were applied to exclude chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular genetic approaches (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Sanger sequencing) identified a yet unreported combination of two new mutations in FLT3-ITDs. The first mutation induced a frameshift in JMD, and the second led to a homozygous substitution of c.1836T>A (p.F612L) also in JMD. Additionally a NPM1 type A mutation was detected. The first chemotherapeutic treatment was successful, but 1 month after the initial diagnosis, the patient experienced a relapse and unfortunately died. To the best of our knowledge, a combination of two FLT3-ITD mutations in JMD together with an NPM1 type A mutation were not previously reported in adult AML. Further studies are necessary to prove or rule out whether the size of these FLT3-ITDs mutations and potential other double mutations in FLT3-ITD are correlated with the observed adverse outcome.

Citation

Ismael F Alarbeed, Abdulsamad Wafa, Faten Moassass, Bassel Al-Halabi, Walid Al-Achkar, Thomas Liehr, Imad Aboukhamis. De novo adult acute myeloid leukemia with two new mutations in juxtatransmembrane domain of the FLT3 gene: a case report. Journal of medical case reports. 2021 Jan 26;15(1):22

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PMID: 33494808

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