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    To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke, smokeless tobacco (e.g. snus), tobacco heating products (THP), electronic cigarettes (EC), and modern oral nicotine products on tooth staining. In this in vitro study, staining was assessed for 86 days following exposure of bovine enamel samples to a scientific reference cigarette (1R6F), a THP (glo), an EC (ePen 3), a reference snus product (CRP1.1), and a modern oral product (LYFT). Red wine and coffee were used as positive controls and DMSO and complete artificial saliva as negative controls. Whether brushing could reduce staining levels was also assessed. Changes in staining levels were assessed using the Commission Internationale de L'éclairage L*a*b* method. Enamel staining increased with incubation time, and cigarette smoke, snus, coffee and wine induced statistically higher staining levels. THP, EC and modern oral exposure induced minimal staining levels that were also comparable to negative control samples. At day 86, ΔE mean and SD values were 28.50 ± 3.14, 19.76 ± 1.26, 17.35 ± 3.44, 16.22 ± 2.07, 18.30 ± 3.82, 4.10 ± 1.99, 11.30 ± 2.60, 49.56 ± 2.44 for cigarette, glo, EC with blended tobacco, EC with rich tobacco, reference snus product, modern oral product, coffee or wine. The control ΔE mean and SD values at day 86 were 18.68 ± 3.89 for DMSO and 2.17± 0.78 for complete artificial saliva. The ΔE values for all DMSO extracted samples and control increased from day 1 to 86, which suggests that the DMSO used to extract the samples contributes to the enamel sample staining levels. Staining levels were reduced by brushing. Cigarette smoke, red wine, snus and coffee stained enamel. Exposure to THP, EC or modern oral product extracts for 86 days resulted in minimal enamel staining. Further studies are required to assess the long-term impact on staining and the oral cavity following consumer exclusive use of EC, THP or modern oral products. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.


    Annette Dalrymple, Emma-Jayne Bean, Thomas C Badrock, Randy A Weidman, Jesse Thissen, Steven Coburn, James Murphy. Enamel staining with e-cigarettes, tobacco heating products and modern oral nicotine products compared with cigarettes and snus: An in vitro study. American journal of dentistry. 2021 Feb;34(1):3-9

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    PMID: 33544982

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