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Global trade of seafood has increased in the last decade, leading to significant concerns associated with seafood fraud. Seafood fraud involves the intentional misrepresentation of fish or shellfish for the purpose of economic gain and includes acts such as species substitution, illegal transshipment, overtreatment/short weighting, and mislabeling country of origin or production method. These fraudulent acts have had economic, environmental, and public health consequences on a global level. DNA-based techniques for seafood authentication are utilized by regulatory agencies and can be employed as part of a food fraud risk mitigation plan. This chapter will focus specifically on the use of DNA-based methods for the detection of seafood species substitution. Various methods have been developed for DNA-based species identification of seafood, including polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), species-specific PCR, real-time PCR, Sanger sequencing, microarrays, and high-resolution melting (HRM). Emerging techniques for seafood authentication include droplet digital PCR, isothermal amplification, PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and high-throughput or next-generation sequencing. Some of these DNA-based methods target specific species, such as real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, while other methods allow for simultaneous differentiation of a wide range of fish species, including Sanger sequencing and high-throughput sequencing. This chapter will begin with an introduction on seafood fraud and species substitution, followed by an analysis of the main DNA-based authentication methods and emerging techniques for species identification. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Anthony J Silva, Rosalee S Hellberg. DNA-based techniques for seafood species authentication. Advances in food and nutrition research. 2021;95:207-255

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PMID: 33745513

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