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    Schwann cells promote axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, in terms of clinical treatment, the therapeutic effects of Schwann cells are limited by their source. The transmission of microvesicles from neuroglia cells to axons is a novel communication mechanism in axon regeneration.To evaluate the effect of microvesicles released from Schwann-like cells on axonal regeneration, neural stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells differentiated into Schwann-like cells, which presented a typical morphology and characteristics similar to those of schwann cells. The glial markers like MBP, P0, P75NTR, PMP-22, GFAP, HNK-1 and S100 were upregulated, whereas the neural stem markers like NESTIN, SOX1 and SOX2 were significantly downregulated in schwann-like cells. Microvesicles enhanced axonal growth in dorsal root ganglia neurons and regulated GAP43 expression in neuron-like cells (N2A and PC12) through the PTEN/PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway. A 5 mm section of sciatic nerve was transected in Sprague-Dawley rats. With microvesicles transplantation, regenerative nerves were evaluated after 6 weeks. Microvesicles increased sciatic function index scores, delayed gastrocnemius muscle atrophy and elevated ╬▓III-tubulin-labeled axons in vivo. Schwann-like cells serve as a convenient source and promote axonal growth by secreting microvesicles, which may potentially be used as bioengineering materials for nerve tissue repair.


    Kai Ye, Jiahong Yu, Li Li, Hui Wang, Bin Tang, Wei Ni, Jiqin Zhou, Yating Ling, Xiaorui Lu, Dongdong Niu, Murugan Ramalingam, Jiabo Hu. Microvesicles from Schwann-Like Cells as a New Biomaterial Promote Axonal Growth. Journal of biomedical nanotechnology. 2021 Feb 28;17(2):291-302

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    PMID: 33785099

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