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Raisin aroma is a vital sensory characteristic that determines consumers' acceptance. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fresh grapes, air-dried (AD), pre-treated air-dried (PAD), sun-dried (SD), and pre-treated sun-dried (PSD) raisins were analyzed, with 99 and 77 free- and bound-form compounds identified in centennial seedless grapes, respectively. The hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, ethyl alcohol, and ethyl acetate in free-form while benzyl alcohol, β-damascenone, gerenic acid in bound-form were the leading compounds. Overall, the concentration of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, acids, terpenoids, ketones, benzene, and phenols were abundant in fresh grapes but pyrazine and furan were identified in raisin. Out of 99 VOCs, 30 compounds had an odour active value above 1. The intensity of green, floral, and fruity aromas were quite higher in fresh grapes followed by AD-raisins, PAD-raisins, SD-raisins, and PSD-raisins. The intense roasted aroma was found in SD-raisins due to 2,6-diethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine. Among raisins, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid oxidized and Maillard reaction volatiles were higher in SD-raisins and mainly contributed green, fruity and floral, and roasted aromas, respectively.


Hafiz Umer Javed, Dong Wang, Rani Andaleeb, Muhammad Salman Zahid, Ying Shi, Saeed Akhtar, Wang Shiping, Chang-Qing Duan. Drying Treatments Change the Composition of Aromatic Compounds from Fresh to Dried Centennial Seedless Grapes. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Mar 08;10(3)

PMID: 33800375

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