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    This study aimed to assess the effect of tannin molecular mass on nonbleachable pigment formation and subsequent stability under wine-like conditions. Tannin fractions of a defined molecular mass range were prepared from grape skins and seeds and reacted with malvidin-3-glucoside for 120 days in three media types: chemically defined wine media with or without acetaldehyde addition or model wine without acetaldehyde. Precipitation was observed after the reaction period and increased in response to both higher tannin molecular mass and acetaldehyde concentration. To confirm whether acetaldehyde-mediated condensation of tannin and anthocyanin modified the solubility of the nonbleachable pigments formed, HPLC-MS was used for the semiquantitative identification of vinyl derivatives and ethyl-linked adducts in soluble and precipitated materials. It was found that the proportion of vinyl derivatives and ethyl-linked anthocyanin was elevated in tannin precipitates relative to soluble pigmented material. Despite substantial losses of tannin due to precipitation, the resulting nonbleachable pigment concentration and color intensity were higher in wine media containing elevated acetaldehyde, when each tannin size category was considered independently. The results of this study indicated that the development of nonbleachable pigments from larger tannins may be limited when acetaldehyde-mediated condensation with anthocyanin predominates in wine, concomitant with precipitation.


    Bo Teng, Yoji Hayasaka, Paul A Smith, Keren A Bindon. Precipitation of Tannin-Anthocyanin Derivatives in Wine is Influenced by Acetaldehyde Concentration and Tannin Molecular Mass with Implications for the Development of Nonbleachable Pigments. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2021 Apr 28;69(16):4804-4815

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    PMID: 33853320

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