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    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptors or NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, which sense conserved microbial patterns and host-derived danger signals to elicit innate immune responses. The activation of several prototypic NLRs, including NLR and pyrin domain (PYD) containing (NLRP) 1, NLRP3 and NLR and caspase recruitment domain (CARD) containing (NLRC) 4, results in the assembly of inflammasomes, which are large, cytoplasmic multiprotein signalling platforms responsible for the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and for the induction of a specialized form of inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. However, the function of other members of the NLR family, including NLRP7, are less well understood. NLRP7 has been linked to innate immune signalling, but its precise role is still controversial as it has been shown to positively and negatively affect inflammasome responses. Inflammasomes are essential for homeostasis and host defence, but inappropriate inflammasome responses due to hereditary mutations and somatic mosaicism in inflammasome components and defective regulation have been linked to a broad spectrum of human diseases. A compelling connection between NLRP7 mutations and reproductive diseases, and in particular molar pregnancy, has been established. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NLRP7 mutations contribute to reproductive diseases are largely unknown. In this review, we focus on NLRP7 and discuss the current evidence of its role in inflammasome regulation and its implication in human reproductive diseases. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Jessica Carriere, Andrea Dorfleutner, Christian Stehlik. NLRP7: From inflammasome regulation to human disease. Immunology. 2021 Aug;163(4):363-376

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    PMID: 34021586

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