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    Fish otolith marking with the alizarin dye is a commonly used tool in sustainable fishery management. However, the reported effects of this dye on fish health are rather controversial and are possibly linked to differences in the composition of different brands of Alizarin red S (ARS). Laboratory experiments designed to elucidate effects of different concentrations of theoretically the same ARS as indicated by the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) number on fish at different development stages were carried out. The acute toxicity of ARS to Salmo trutta was found to be concentration- and fish developmental stage-dependant. Our study results showed that S. trutta sensitivity to ARS varies depending on its developmental stages as follows: fry (50-days after hatching) > alevins (30-days after hatching) > alevins (1-day after hatching). One of the tested ARS brands (purchased from VWR International LLC (Matsonford Road, USA)) was found to be several times more toxic to fish than another (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA)), although according to the certificates of analysis, the tested substances were identical. Survival and growth of the S. trutta fry, which was marked with different ARS brands and stocked in the same natural stream, was investigated for two consecutive years. The results obtained indicate remarkable differences (p < 0.05) in the effects produced by the tested ARS brands, thus confirming our laboratory findings. The performed elemental analysis of the tested ARS dyes revealed significant differences in chemical impurities that these dyes contain. This study has, for the first time, expressed concern about the probable long-term impact of some ARS brands on the marked fish and their potential to bias the results of the studies dealing with ARS-marked fish. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Živilė Jurgelėnė, Danguolė Montvydienė, Saulius Stakėnas, Justas Poviliūnas, Simonas Račkauskas, Ričardas Taraškevičius, Vesta Skrodenytė-Arbačiauskienė, Nijolė Kazlauskienė. Impact evaluation of marking Salmo trutta with Alizarin Red S produced by different manufacturers. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2022 Jan;242:106051

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    PMID: 34915354

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