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    A new intelligent pH-sensitive colorimetric label was fabricated by immobilizing Ixiolirion tataricum anthocyanins (ITA) into biocellulose (bacterial nanocellulose; BNC) film and was then studied to determine how it can be used as a label for monitoring freshness/spoilage of shrimp during storage at 4 °C. The formation of new interactions between ITA and BNC film and disruption of crystalline structure of BNC after anthocyanins immobilization were approved by FT-IR and XRD analyses, respectively. According to FE-SEM observations, the porosity of the BNC network decreased after ITA incorporation. The fabricated BNC-ITA label showed a distinct color change from violet to green over the pH range of 4-12. The pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total psychrophiles count (TPC), and the quantity of biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine) in the shrimp samples and their correlation with color changes on the label were measured over a 4-day storage period. Consistent with changes in levels of TVB-N, TPC, pH, and biogenic amines, a visually distinguishable color change occurred on the BNC-ITA label as blue (fresh), dark green (medium fresh), and kelly green (spoiled). This research showed that ITA as a novel pH-sensitive dye is a promising candidate for developing pH labels for seafood intelligent packaging. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Nima Ghadiri Alamdari, Samira Forghani, Sorour Salmasi, Hadi Almasi, Mehran Moradi, Rahim Molaei. Ixiolirion tataricum anthocyanins-loaded biocellulose label: Characterization and application for food freshness monitoring. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2022 Mar 01;200:87-98

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    PMID: 34998041

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