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    In cool-climate viticulture, the short growing season can influence grape seed maturation by reducing the apparent oxidation of flavan-3-ol monomers and associated increase in seed browning. A reduction in seed maturation increases the potential extraction of flavan-3-ol monomers into wine during maceration operations, heightening bitterness. Here, we carried out a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the ability of freezing and heating treatments to advance maturation (decrease flavan-3-ol, improve browning) of (Vitis vinifera L.) Pinot noir and Cabernet Sauvignon seeds over a 24-h incubation period. Only freezing significantly increased seed browning in both cultivars. Subsequent correlations with seed flavan-3-ol monomer concentrations suggest that freezing enhanced the oxidation of these compounds. Interestingly, natural ripening and freezing reduced galloylated flavan-3-ol monomers to a greater extent than non-galloylated ones. This study provides new information regarding the susceptibility of flavan-3-ol monomers to freezing and heating, and also suggests that freezing can advance the maturation the seeds of under-ripe red vinifera grapes. © 2022. The Author(s).


    Joshua VanderWeide, Filippo Del Zozzo, Esmaeil Nasrollahiazar, James A Kennedy, Enrico Peterlunger, Laura Rustioni, Paolo Sabbatini. Influence of freezing and heating conditions on grape seed flavan-3-ol extractability, oxidation, and galloylation pattern. Scientific reports. 2022 Mar 09;12(1):3838

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    PMID: 35264734

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