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Pycnodysostosis (PD, OMIM # 265800) is a rare variant of skeletal dysplasia with an autosomal recessive type of inheritance, characterized by a combination of specific features such as disproportionate nanism, generalized osteosclerosis, and distinct craniofacial dysmorphism. Radiographic features include acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges in association with sclerosing bone lesions with multiple fractures. The polymorphism of the clinical manifestations of pycnodysostosis and low prevalence of the disorder lead to the difficulties with early. The following tests were used for diagnostics: genealogical analysis, clinical examination, neurological examination according to the standard method with an assessment of the psychoemotional sphere, radiological analysis, searching for pathogenic variants in the CTSK gene by the automated Sanger sequencing. We describe first clinical and genetic characteristics of three Russian patients with pycnodysostosis from unrelated families. Two patients have a novel homozygous nucleotide substitution c.746T>A (p. Ile249Asn), and one has a previously described homozygous pathogenic variant c.746T>C (p.Ile249Thr) in the CTSK gene. In all three cases, a transition or transversion was found at nucleotide position 746 in exon 6 of the CTSK gene, leading to two different amino acid substitutions in the polypeptide chain. The obtained results may indicate the presence of a major pathogenic variant in the CTSK gene, leading to the typical manifestation of the disease. The data presented in the study enlarge the clinical, radiological, and mutational spectrum of pycnodysostosis. Typical clinical manifestations and the small size of the CTSK gene make the automated Sanger sequencing the optimal method for diagnosis of pycnodysostosis. © 2022 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Tatiana Vladimirovna Markova, Vladimir Kenis, Evgeniy Melchenko, Darya Guseva, Darya Osipova, Nailya Galeeva, Tatiana Nagornova, Elena Leonidovna Dadali. Clinical and genetic characterization of three Russian patients with pycnodysostosis due to pathogenic variants in the CTSK gene. Molecular genetics & genomic medicine. 2022 May;10(5):e1904

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PMID: 35315254

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