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    The thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are of vital importance for fetal development. The concentration of THs in fetal circulation varies throughout gestation and differs from the concentration in the maternal serum, indicating the presence of maternal-fetal thyroid homeostasis regulatory mechanisms in the placenta. The passage of THs from maternal circulation to fetal circulation is modulated by plasma membrane transporters, enzymes, and carrier proteins. Monocarboxylate transporter 8, iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO2 and DIO3), and transthyretin are especially involved in this maternal-fetal thyroid modulation, shown by a greater expression in the placenta. THs also play a role in placental development and as expected, abnormal variations in TH levels are associated with pregnancy complications and can result in damage to the fetus. Although new evidence regarding TH regulation during pregnancy and its effects in the mother, placenta, and fetus has been published, many aspects of these interactions are still poorly understood. The objective of this review is to provide an evidence-based update, drawn from current data, on the metabolism and transport of THs in the placenta and their vital role in the maternal-fetal relationship. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


    Luis Felipe Falla Zuñiga, Yhoiss Smiht Muñoz, Maria Carolina Pustovrh. Thyroid hormones: Metabolism and transportation in the fetoplacental unit. Molecular reproduction and development. 2022 Nov;89(11):526-539

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    PMID: 36208482

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