Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

The edible nature of many plants makes leaves particularly useful as scaffolds for the development of cultured meat, where animal tissue is grown in the laboratory setting. Recently, we demonstrated that decellularized spinach leaves can serve as scaffolds to grow and differentiate cells for cultured meat products. However, conventional decellularization methods use solutions that are not considered safe for use in food, such as organic solvents (hexanes) and detergents (triton X-100 (TX100)). This study modified decellularization protocols to incorporate detergents that are regulated (REG) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in food, such as Polysorbate 20 (PS20), and eliminates the use of hexanes for cuticle removal. Spinach leaves were decellularized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and then with either TX100 (control) or PS20. The average DNA content for TX100 samples and PS20 samples was similar (1.3 ± 0.07 vs 1.3 ± 0.05 ng/mg; TX100 vs PS20, p = ns). The importance of cuticle removal was tested by removing hexanes from the protocol. Groups that included the cuticle removal step exhibited an average reduction in DNA content of approximately 91.7%, and groups that omitted the cuticle removal step exhibited an average reduction of approximately 90.3% (p = ns), suggesting that the omission of the cuticle removal step did not impede decellularization. Lastly, primary bovine satellite cells (PBSCs) were cultured for 7 days (d) on the surface of spinach leaves decellularized using the REG protocol. After the 7 d incubation period, PBSCs grown on the surface of REG scaffolds had an average viability of approximately 97.4%. These observations suggest that the REG protocol described in this study is an effective decellularization method, more closely adhering to food safety guidelines, that could be implemented in lab grown meat and alternative protein products.


Jordan D Jones, Richard Thyden, Luke R Perreault, Benjamin M Varieur, Andriana A Patmanidis, Lancelot Daley, Glenn R Gaudette, Tanja Dominko. Decellularization: Leveraging a Tissue Engineering Technique for Food Production. ACS biomaterials science & engineering. 2023 May 08;9(5):2292-2300

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 37126371

View Full Text