Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD) is characterized by nasal polyp formation, adult-onset asthma, and hypersensitivity to all cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Oxygenated lipids are collectively known as oxylipins and are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxidation products. The most extensively researched oxylipins being the eicosanoids formed from arachidonic acid (AA). There are four major classes of eicosanoids including leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and lipoxins. In N-ERD, the underlying inflammatory process of the upper and lower respiratory systems begins and occurs independently of NSAID consumption and is due to the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Leukotriene mediators all induce edema, bronchoconstriction, and airway mucous secretion. Thromboxane A2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor and induces endothelial adhesion molecule expression. Elevated Prostaglandin D2 metabolites lead to vasoconstriction, additionally impaired up-regulation of prostaglandin E2 leads to symptoms seen in N-ERD as it is essential for maintaining homeostasis of inflammatory responses in the airway and has bronchoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. A characteristic feature of N-ERD is diminished lipoxin levels, this decreased capacity to form endogenous mediators with anti-inflammatory properties could facilitate local inflammatory response and expose bronchial smooth muscle to relatively unopposed actions of broncho-constricting substances. Treatment options, such as leukotriene modifying agents, aspirin desensitization, biologic agents and ESS, appear to influence eicosanoid pathways, however more studies need to be done to further understand the role of oxylipins. Besides AA-derived eicosanoids, other oxylipins may also pay a role but have not been sufficiently studied. Identifying pathogenic N-ERD mechanism is likely to define more effective treatment targets. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kimberley Cousins, Chien-Chang Chen, Esha Sehanobish, Elina Jerschow. The role of oxylipins in NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD). Advances in pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.). 2023;97:423-444

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 37236766

View Full Text