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    Aminoglycosides and polymyxins are antibiotics with in vitro activity against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. However, their clinical use is hindered by dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. The objective of this project was to determine if zileuton can reduce nephrotoxicity associated with amikacin and polymyxin B in a rat model of acute kidney injury.Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10, both genders) were administered either amikacin (300 mg/kg) or polymyxin B (20 mg/kg) daily for 10 days. Zileuton (4 and 10 mg/kg) was delivered intraperitoneally 15 min before antibiotic administration. Blood samples were collected at baseline and daily to determine serum creatinine concentration. Nephrotoxicity was defined as a ≥2× elevation of baseline serum creatinine. Time-to-event analysis and log rank test were used to compare the onset of nephrotoxicity in different cohorts. Histopathological analysis was also conducted to characterize the extent of kidney injury.Animals receiving amikacin or polymyxin B alone had nephrotoxicity rates of 90% and 100%, respectively. The overall rate was reduced to 30% in animals receiving adjuvant zileuton. The onset of nephrotoxicity associated with amikacin and polymyxin B was also significantly delayed by zileuton at 4 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Histopathology confirmed reduced kidney injury in animals receiving amikacin concomitant with zileuton.Our pilot data suggest that zileuton has the potential to attenuate nephrotoxicity associated with last-line antibiotics. This would allow these antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections optimally without dose-limiting constraints. Further studies are warranted to optimize drug delivery and dosing in humans.© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Cole S Hudson, James E Smith, Brianna M Eales, Shama Kajiji, Xinli Liu, Luan D Truong, Vincent H Tam. Zileuton ameliorates aminoglycoside and polymyxin-associated acute kidney injury in an animal model. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2023 Aug 11

    PMID: 37563789

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