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    Our new compound, 5'-Br [(E)-1-(5'-bromo-2'-oxoindolin-3'-ylidene)-6-ethyl-2,3,6,9-tetrahydro-2,9-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline-8-carboxylic acid], had shown strong, selective antiproliferative activity against different cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to comprehensively characterize the mechanisms associated with its cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. We focused at studying the involvement of apoptotic pathway and cell cycle effects. 5'-Br significantly inhibited proliferation by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Involvement of caspase independent mechanism is also possible due to observed inability of z-VAD-FMK to rescue apoptotic cells. 5'-Br was found to trigger intrinsic apoptotic pathway as indicated by depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, decreased level of cellular ATP, modulated expression and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 leading to loss of its association with Bax, and increased release of cytochrome c. 5'-Br treated cells were found arrested at G0/G1 phase with modulation in protein levels of cyclins, dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Expression and enzymatic activity of CDK2 and CDK4 was found inhibited. Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation was also inhibited whereas p21 protein levels were increased. These results suggest that the antiproliferative mechanisms of action of 5'-Br could involve apoptotic pathways, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and disruption of cell cycle checkpoint. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.


    Ayman M Saleh, Mustafa M El-Abadelah, Mohammad Azhar Aziz, Mutasem O Taha, Amre Nasr, Syed A A Rizvi. Antiproliferative activity of the isoindigo 5'-Br in HL-60 cells is mediated by apoptosis, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Cancer letters. 2015 Jun 1;361(2):251-61

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    PMID: 25790909

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