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    Effect of different nitrogen levels (0, 150, and 300 kg hm-2) at booting stage on storage protein biosynthesis and processing quality of wheat was investigated using microstructural and ultrastructural observation, RNA sequencing, and quality analysis in this study. The results showed that the storage protein genes encoding ω- and γ-gliadin and low molecular weight glutenin subunit were upregulated at N150, and the genes encoding α- or β-gliadin and avenin-like protein were upregulated at N300. Two nitrogen levels induced expression of some interesting regulating genes, such as USE1, STX1B_2_3, SEC23, SEC24, SEC61A, HSP A1_8, HSP20, and HSP90B/TRA1. These regulatory genes were enriched in the KEGG pathway protein export, SNARE interactions in vesicular transport, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. The amount, morphology, and accumulation pattern of protein body in four different endosperm regions in developing caryopsis show different response to N150 and N300, of which N300 had greater influence than N150. N150 and N300 both enhanced the contents of protein components, endosperm fullness, grain hardness, and parameters of processing quality, with the latter showing a greater degree of influence. Contrary to the accumulation pattern of protein body, N300 reduced the ratio of the amount of starch granules to the area ratio of protein body to starch granule. Results suggested that the difference of different nitrogen levels affecting storage protein biosynthesis might be through affecting the expression of the encoding and regulating gene of storage protein.

    Citation

    Xurun Yu, Leilei Wang, Liping Ran, Xinyu Chen, Jieyue Sheng, Yang Yang, Yunfei Wu, Gang Chen, Fei Xiong. New insights into the mechanism of storage protein biosynthesis in wheat caryopsis under different nitrogen levels. Protoplasma. 2020 Sep;257(5):1289-1308

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    PMID: 32405873

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