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Calreticulin (CALR) is a chaperone present in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in the quality control of N-glycosylated proteins and storage of calcium ions. In 2013, the C-terminal mutation in CALR was identified in half of the patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis who did not have a JAK2 or MPL mutation. The results of 8 years of intensive research are changing the clinical practice associated with treating myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The presence or absence of CALR mutations and their mutation types already provide important information for diagnosis and treatment decision making. In addition, the interaction with the thrombopoietin receptor MPL, which is the main mechanism of transformation by CALR mutation, and the expression of the mutant protein on the cell surface have a great potential as targets for molecular-targeted drugs and immunotherapy. This chapter presents recent findings on the clinical significance of the CALR mutation and the molecular basis by which this mutation drives MPNs. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kotaro Shide. Calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. International review of cell and molecular biology. 2021;365:179-226

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PMID: 34756244

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