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The role of NF-kappaB in the expression of inflammatory genes and its participation in the overall inflammatory process of chronic diseases and acute tissue injury are well established. We and others have demonstrated a critical involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 during inflammation, in part, through its relationship with NF-kappaB. However, the mechanism by which PARP-1 affects NF-kappaB activation has been elusive. In this study, we show that PARP-1 inhibition by gene knockout, knockdown, or pharmacologic blockade prevented p65 NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in smooth muscle cells upon TLR4 stimulation, NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity, and subsequent inducible NO synthase and ICAM-1 expression. Such defects were reversed by reconstitution of PARP-1 expression. PARP-1 was dispensable for LPS-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and subsequent degradation but was required for p65 NF-kappaB phosphorylation. A perinuclear p65 NF-kappaB localization in LPS-treated PARP-1(-/-) cells was associated with an export rather an import defect. Indeed, whereas PARP-1 deficiency did not alter expression of importin alpha3 and importin alpha4 and their cytosolic localization, the cytosolic levels of exportin (Crm)-1 were increased. Crm1 inhibition promoted p65 NF-kappaB nuclear accumulation as well as reversed LPS-induced p65 NF-kappaB phosphorylation and inducible NO synthase and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, p65 NF-kappaB poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation decreased its interaction with Crm1 in vitro. Pharmacologic inhibition of PARP-1 increased p65 NF-kappaB-Crm1 interaction in LPS-treated smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that p65 NF-kappaB poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be a critical determinant for the interaction with Crm1 and its nuclear retention upon TLR4 stimulation. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism by which PARP-1 promotes NF-kappaB nuclear retention, which ultimately can influence NF-kappaB-dependent gene regulation.


Mourad Zerfaoui, Youssef Errami, Amarjit S Naura, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Hogyoung Kim, Jihang Ju, Tao Liu, Chetan P Hans, Jong G Kim, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Shahriar Koochekpour, Andrew Catling, A Hamid Boulares. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a determining factor in Crm1-mediated nuclear export and retention of p65 NF-kappa B upon TLR4 stimulation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2010 Aug 1;185(3):1894-902

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PMID: 20610652

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