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QuickView for morphine (compound)

Name: Morphine
PubChem Compound ID: 408117
Description: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Molecular formula: C23H31N3O
Molecular weight: 365.512 g/mol
Morphine; NSC11411; 23552-18-3
Name: Morphine
Name (isomeric): DB00295
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride; (-)-Morphine; Heroine hydrochloride; Morphinum; Morphina; D-(-)-Morphine; Morphin; O,O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride; (-)-Heroin hydrochloride; Morphine Sulfate.
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Brand: M-Eslon, Roxanol, Morphia, Morphine Extra-Forte, Apokyn, Dulcontin, Kadian, Morphinism, Morphine Forte, Astramorph PF, Epimorph, Morphitec, MS/S, l-Morphine, Duromorph, OMS Concentrate, Morfina, Oramorph SR, MS/L, Rescudose, Moscontin, Statex Drops, Roxanol 100, Ospalivina, Meconium, Statex, Duramorph PF, RMS Uniserts, Avinza, Depodur, Ms Contin, Roxanol UD, Morphine H.P, Morphium, Nepenthe, M.O.S, MSIR
Brand name mixture: Camphorated Opium Tincture(Benzoic Acid + Camphor + Morphine), Paregorique(Camphor + Morphine)
Category: Narcotics, Analgesics, Opiate Agonists, Analgesics, Opioid
CAS number: 57-27-2
Indication: For the relief and treatment of severe pain.
Morphine is a narcotic pain management agent indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, n...
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Mechanism of Action:
The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the expression of analgesic effects. Morphine first acts on the mu-opioid receptors. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respirat...
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Absorption: Bioavailability is approximately 30%.
Protein binding: 30-40%
Biotransformation: Primarily hepatic (90%), converted to dihydromorphinone and normorphine. Also converted to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide. Virtually all morphine is converted to glucuronide metabolites; only a small fraction (less than 5%) of absorbed morphine is demethylated.
Route of elimination: A small amount of glucuronide conjugates are excreted in bile, with minor enterohepatic recycling. Seven to 10% of administered morphine sulfate is excreted in the feces.
Half Life: 2-4 hours
Clearance: 20 – 30 mL/min/kg [Adult] 1852 +/- 116 mL/min [Chinese] 1495 +/- 80 mL/min [Caucasian]
Toxicity: LD50 = 461 mg/kg (rat, oral), 600 mg/kg (mouse, oral). Human lethal dose by ingestion is 120-250 mg of morphine sulfate. Symptoms of overdose include cold, clammy skin, flaccid muscles, fluid in the lungs, lowered blood pressure, "pinpoint" or dilated pupils, sleepiness leading to stupor and coma, slowed breathing, and slow pulse rate.
Affected organisms: Humans and other mammals
Food interaction:
Avoid alcohol.
To avoid constipation: increase your daily intake of fiber (beans, whole grains, vegetables).
Take with food.
Drug interaction:
TrovafloxacinMorphine may reduce serum levels of Trovafloxacin decreasing the efficacy of the antibiotic. IV doses of morphine should be administered at least 2 hours after a dose of Trovafloxacin given in a fasting state or 4 hours after if given in a fed state.
RifampinRifampin decreases the effect of morphine/codeine
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Morphine, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.